Énaud dit Canada vs Deschamps
Although Jacques Énaud-dit-Canada had only one son, his descendents today are quite numerous. In fact,
there are nearly as many as the line of
Hunault-dit-Deschamps. Mostly known as Hénault, Héneault, Énault, Esnault, Eno
and some other variations, some have adopted their dit name as a surname,
such as Fresnière, Delorme, Portneuf, Canada, Cadat and Cadeau. Some are found mostly in
specific regions of Canada, such as two branches of Delorme in the western part of Canada, and Portneuf in the Drummond/Nicolet region.
Ontario created it's own
version with a new dit name, Cadeau, based on a variation of Canada. From the
branch of Pierre Hénault-dit-Canada-Fresnière and Marie Josèphe Duhaime
married in 1857 in Ste-Malachie of Ormstown (Qc), came Pierre Hénault-dit
Canada married to Marie-Meltime Houle, and from the branch of Alexis
Hénault-dit-Canada-Fresnière and Marie Geneviève Gadoury married in 1840
in Ste-Geneviève-de-Berthier (Qc), came three brothers: Jean Octave Simon,
Alexis a.k.a. Alexandre and Olivier, all using mostly the dit name Canada, who migrated to
Simcoe County, Ontario. Soon after, the
name Canada, which was sometimes referred to as Cada and Cadat, became Cado, Cadot
and finally Cadeau. The name Cadeau is now the surname used officially by
these two branches. Some descendants from these Ontario branches were rather
surprised, when working their way up the family tree, to find out that
they were in fact descendants of Hénault-dit-Fresnière, still not
understanding how their family went from one to the other. Most probably,
if we were to dig deep enough, we would find some other variations of the
name that we are not aware of.
Unfortunately, the problem with dit names is that quite a lot of them in
fact have become official surnames, a fact known to most genealogists
but not necessarily to those starting to research their family lineage...
Jacques Énaud-dit-Canada, there were quite a few Énaud, Hénault, Hainault
and Hunault immigrants. Some with dit names, such as
Beau-Frère, Barbocant, Botté, Champagne and Deschamps, and some without dit names.
Today, most of them use the surname Hénault. There is an excellent
article on that subject, listing the
known immigrants and a brief description of their origins.
There is a misconception,
however, that needs to be clarified. Those of you who have
consulted the Drouin dictionnaries: "Dictionnaire National des
Canadiens-Français 1608-1760" a.k.a. the Red Drouin, or their marriage
index called "La Masculine" and "La Féminine" a.k.a. the "Blue Drouin",
are all aware of their classification for Hénault and Hunault, whatever
the spelling, under the heading of "Deschamps", therefore
giving the wrong impression. Unfortunately, some
BMS publications have followed suite, but not all of them. Based on
my experience, this has created the worst nightmare for genealogists.
Try as you might, explaining to researchers, with or without experience in
the field, that Deschamps is the dit name used only by the Hunault
family: Toussaint Hunault-dit-Deschamps and his wife Marie Lorgueil and
their descendents, and does not apply to any of the other Énaud / Hénault / Hainault
immigrants and their descendents...! Notwithstanding the fact that
Deschamps is also a proper surname in its own right.
A dit name
properly identifies a particular branch of a family and usually helps
genealogists in their research. In this case, lumping all Hénaults,
Hunaults and Deschamps under the classification of Deschamps served no
purpose at all. It only made matters worse by creating confusion. As far as we know, there is no relation at all in between
Hunault-dit-Deschamps and the various branches of Énaud-dit-Canada/Delorme/Fresnière/Portneuf,
or for that matter, other Hénault families.
These two pioneer families are totally independent from one another and are
not related in any way. When consulting the records, it is obvious that
these families were never present together in any events related to their
respective families, untill the mid 1800's. Although they were established not far from one
another, it took nearly two centuries before these two
Hunault-Deschamps family was well established in the Lachenaie region and
later migrated to the Montreal west region and across the river. While
the Enault-Canada-Delorme-Fresnière families were established in the
Berthier region. Some of the Fresnière branch migrated around 1828 towards
St-Valentin/Napierville/Ormstown areas. Later, with the exception of two brothers who
chose to move to Ontario, they migrated towards the
Eastern Townships and the New England area. It's in St-Valentin that we see the first
marriage in 1841 between Hénault and Deschamps.
imperative, therefore, for all genealogists to pay attention to which branches of
Hénaults they are researching; the dit names should help identify
the families you are looking for. That is if you don't want to have to start
your research all over again, because you're looking up the wrong tree...!
If you come up with the dit names Canada, Delorme, Fresnière or Portneuf,
chances are you are researching Hénaults; if you come up with the dit name Deschamps,
you most probably are researching Hunaults. But beware, we are talking
about dit names here. All Deschamps are not necessarily Hunaults...